Robin Hood

Join the discussion at the Greenwood!

The following list is built around J. C. Holt's Robin Hood (Thames and Hudson, 1982 and 1989). The list places Holt's discoveries of the Hood name (and similar names) within their historical context. I added the name "de Hodenet" to the list. Which one is the original Robin Hood? Holt leaned strongly toward the "Robert Hod" of 1225, but rejected all such identifications in the end.

1066 The Norman Conquest
circa 1070 Anglo-Saxon rebel Hereward the Wake resists, then makes peace with, the Normans.
1194-6 Famed troubadour and king, Richard I, held hostage in Austria.
1202-3 Fulk fitz Warin, his brothers, and a cousin named Baldwin de Hodenet, conduct guerrilla war against King John I.
1210 "Whoever should come to the brothers, be he friend or enemy, thief or robber, let him be kindly received..." The Rule of St. Francis
1212 John Hood and wife appear in Stanley Bottom, Wakefield, the year of the Children's Crusade.
1213 Robert Hood, "slew Ralph of Cirencester in the Abbot's garden."
1216 King John, a French speaking Norman, loses Normandy to France, signs Magna Carta.
1217 Rebel leader Eustace the Monk beheaded.
1225-6 Robert Hod, a fugitive, York, Yorkshire. He is renamed "Hobbehod" by an officer of the court.
c1250 England's pop. 1.5 million, expanding rapidly.
1252 Pope Innocent IV approves torture by Inquisition. Many dissidents flee to England.
1256-7 Fulk fitz Warin dies a natural death after reconciling differences with the Crown.
1261 William son of Robert le Fevre, alias William Robehod, fugitive, Berkshire. The alias, like the one above--Hobbehod-- strongly suggests that some sort of Robin Hood legend was in circulation by this time.-Holt
1263-5 Simon de Montfort hanged.
1266-72 Roger Godberd continues the de Montfort rebellion.
1272 John Rabunhod, outlawed after a tavern brawl, Hampshire.

Alexander Robehod, charged with theft, Essex.
1274-c1314 Richard Hood, Sowerby, Wakefield.

Adam Hood appears every year until about 1314, Wakefield
c1283 Jeu de Robin et Marion composed by Adam de la Halle while he was in Naples, Italy.
1294 Inquisition forces Troubadours underground.

Robert Robehod, indicted for stealing sheep, Hampshire.
1296-7 Gilbert Robynhod, Sussex.

John Hood succeeds Richard Hood of Sowerby, Wakefield.
1300 Supernova (in theory). England's Pop. 3 million.
1303 Baltic Sea freezes over. Bonifice VIII dies after physical assault by the King of France.
1306-7 Edward I issues revised Forest Ordinance. Baltic Sea freezes over again.
1307-17 Robert Hood, Wakefield
1308 Robert Hood Inn, London, named after Robert Hood, councillor. Robert Hood of Newton, Wakefield. Two Robert Hoods succeed John Hood of Sowerby, Wakefield
1309 Popes move to Avignon.

Robert Hood the Grave, thief of Alverthorpe, Wakefield
1313-29 John Hood, Wakefield
1315-6 Severe summer rains begin. Comet reported.
1316-7 Robert & Matilda Hood, Wakefield
1320 The "Shepherd People" uprising in France.
1322 Thomas Earl of Lancaster beheaded at Pontefract for his rebellion against Edward II.
1323 King Edward II visits Lancashire. According to Holt, this journey closely resembles the travels of "Edward Our Comely King" in A Lyttell Gest of Robyn Hode.

Robyn Hode, porter from Wakefield, listed on king's roles.
1325 Katherine Robynhod, London
1326 Mob murders English Bishop on a street in London.
1327 King Edward II executed. Richard II would visit Edward's tomb in Gloucester often, considering him to be a martyr. [Goodman, page 147]
1330 Roger Mortimer hanged. Summer season returns.
1332 Robert Robynhoud, Sussex (2 locations)
1340 Battle of Sluys.
1341-2 Robert Hood dies, Wakefield
1346 Battle of Crecy
1348-9 The Black Death: First Pest
1349 Gotterfreunde (The Society of Friends) established.
c1350 "The Tale of Gamelyn", a romance.
1354 Robert Hood, convict, Rockingham Forest
1356 Battle of Poitiers
1360 Second Pest
1362 English replaces French language in the law courts.
1369 Geoffrey Chaucer, an expert on French language and culture, writes "The Duchess" in English. The topic of the work was John of Gaunt's first wife. According to Goodman, Constance had a "Wodewase" on her staff. The title is believed to be entymologically tied to the name "Robin Hood." (see Goodman, Page 361).
1373-5 Third Pest
1376-9 Jeu de Robin et Marion introduced to England by John Gower.
c1377 "The English Syllabus" issued, signals a decline in French among aristocracy. First literary reference to "Robyn Hood" (Piers Plowman). Ten year old King Richard II crowned.
1381 Wat Tyler Rebellion...he half bent his knee, and then took the King by the hand, and shook his arm forcibly and roughly, saying to him, "Brother, be of good comfort and joyful, for you shall have, in the fortnight that is to come, praise from the commons even more than you have yet had, and we shall be good companions." And the King said to Walter, "Why will you not go back to your own country?" A U.S. President considered himself to be a relative of Wat Tyler, and also named his estate "Sherwood Forest." (See Biography, below)
1388-90 Fourth Pest. Turkey defeats the Serbs at Kosovo in 1389. To the horror of Christian Europe, the Mediterranean Sea is now an Islamic lake.

Woman clinging to crying child while other people, including an American soldier, contemplate a scene of carnage.
The terrors of the 14th Century
are still visible >in the faces of the 20th:
Serbia, 1999

Photo courtesy the Orthodox Diocese
of Raska and Prizen, Serbia
1393 Cheshire Uprising
1397 Cheshire Archers menace Parliament.
1399 John of Gaunt dies, February 3
1400 King Richard's court musician John De Mantagu killed at Cirencester, Gloucester. King Richard II killed. Geoffrey Chaucer dies.
1415 Battle of Agincourt